Setting up an OpenVPN server with VyOS and Viscosity
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) can be utilized for a number of very useful applications. You can securely connect to any public WiFi hotspot. You can overcome geo-blocking restrictions on your favourite websites. And you can even connect to your home or office network from anywhere in the world, as if you were sitting right at your desk. This guide will walk you through the process of setting up your own OpenVPN server, and connecting to it with your copy of Viscosity.
Running your own OpenVPN server will allow you to encrypt everything you do on the internet, so that you can safely do your online banking on the free WiFi at your favourite cafe. Anything you send over the VPN connection will be encrypted from your device until it reaches your OpenVPN server at home. Setting up your OpenVPN server to access your home or office network gives you full access to all your files on your network.
This guide will walk you through the steps involved in setting up an OpenVPN server on a VyOS host that allows you to securely access your home/office network from a remote location and optionally send all of your network traffic through it so you can access the internet securely as well.
For this guide, we assume:
- You have already installed the latest version of VyOS (1.1 at time of writing)
- Your account has sudo privileges to this installation
- This installation of VyOS is a fresh install
- You already have a copy of Viscosity installed on your client device
If you need to download and install a copy of VyOS, a copy can be found at http://vyos.net/wiki/Main_Page. We won't be covering the details of setting up a VyOS instance, many guides can be found online. If you are running a different version of VyOS, it's very likely that many or even all of the steps outlined in this guide will still apply. If you are looking to setup an OpenVPN server on a different operating system, please check out our other guides.
Unfortunately we cannot provide any direct support for setting up your own OpenVPN server. We provide this guide as a courtesy to help you get started with, and make the most of, your copy of Viscosity. We've thoroughly tested the steps in this guide to ensure that, if you follow the instructions detailed below, you should be well on your way to enjoying the benefits of running your own OpenVPN server.
Accessing the Command Line Interface
The steps outlined in this guide are performed via the command line interface (i.e. terminal) on your VyOS server. If you are running this server remotely, you will need to use the SSH application to connect securely between your client device and the server (to "SSH into" your server). If you are setting up your OpenVPN server on a virtual private server (VPS), you may only be familiar with the web interface. Many VPS suppliers provide SSH access in addition to the web interface. Please consult your VPS provider for details.
SSH From Mac
To SSH from a Mac device, you can use the preinstalled ssh program. This program can be accessed by first opening the terminal application. Press
space to bring up the spotlight search bar and type
terminal. Once in the Mac terminal, you can SSH into your VyOS server by typing:
ENTER. You will then be prompted for the password before being logged in.
SSH From Windows
To SSH from a Windows device, you need to use an SSH client. Windows does not come with an SSH client preinstalled, so you will need to download one. One of the best free-to-use clients is called PuTTY. Download a copy of PuTTY and run it. PuTTY is a very small program, so you don't need to install anything, it will just run as a stand alone executable file. Once opened, enter the IP address of your VyOS server in the 'Host Name (or IP address)' section. You will also note that the 'SSH' connection type has been selected by default. If this is the first time you are SSHing into this server from your client device, the SSH protocol will require you to verify that you are connecting to the server you think you are. You will have a 'PuTTY Security Alert' pop up when you attempt to connect. If you have entered the IP address of your server correctly, then you can press 'Yes' to indicate that you trust the server. After you then provide your username and password, you will be logged into the terminal on your VyOS server.
We will assume that you have already set up your network interfaces as such:
- 'OUTSIDE' - eth0 connected to the internet
- 'INSIDE' - eth1 connected to your local home network
Creating Certificates and Keys
You can use the scripts provided by Easy-RSA to generate the required certificates and keys on your client device. Please follow the steps in our Creating Certificates and Keys.
Transferring Files to the Server
In order to use the credential and conf files you have created to set up your OpenVPN server, you need to transfer them to the server. For OpenVPN to be able to access these files, we need to copy them to the directory
/config/auth/. The method which you use will depend very much on your particular setup. If you followed the steps to generate the certificates, your files should be on your client device in the directory:
~/Documents/Viscosity/client/keys/ (or on Windows:
Whichever method you choose to transfer these files, be very careful that you use an encrypted method (such as SFTP or SCP). There are a number of GUI applications that you can use to securely transfer these files to the server: Cyberduck, Transmit and WinSCP to name just a few. Alternatively, if you have physical access to the server and client, perhaps transfer them via a USB drive. Just make sure you don’t transfer them over the internet unencrypted.
Below is the command to transfer the files via SCP:
From the Terminal, type:
scp !/Documents/Viscosity/server/keys/* root@your-server-ip:/config/auth/
From the Cygwin prompt, type:
scp /cygdrive/c/Users/your-account-name/Documents/Viscosity/server/keys/* root@your-server-ip:/config/auth/
OpenVPN Server Configuration
There are a number of different settings we need to customize in our OpenVPN server configuration. In the terminal, enter configuration mode by typing:
You should see the prompt change from $ to #. If you make a mistake entering the following configuration commands, you can remove a previously entered command by repeating the it, but replacing the word 'set' at the start with the word 'delete'.
Paste the following into the terminal window:
# Configure this OpenVPN instance to run as the VPN server set interfaces openvpn vtun0 mode server # The OpenVPN server needs to know the location of the Diffie Hellman file #NOTE: Depending on how you generated your keys, this file name might be 'dh.pem' instead set interfaces openvpn vtun0 tls dh-file '/config/auth/dh2048.pem' # Our VPN connection will be transported over UDP set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--proto udp" # The server needs to keep a record of client virtual IP addresses so that they # can be reassigned if the server goes down set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt" # To ensure that each side of the VPN knows if the connection has been severed, # we want to ping each side every 10 seconds. If either side fails to recieve a # ping within 2 minutes, then it will assume the other side is down set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--keepalive 10 120" # To minimize the bandwidth consumed by the VPN, we want to compress data sent # over it set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--comp-lzo yes" # There can be security issues if you run the OpenVPN server as root, so we will # downgrade the user and group set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--user nobody --group nogroup" # To avoid attempting to access resources that may no longer be accessible on # restart set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--persist-key --persist-tun" # To write (and rewrite) a short summary of current VPN connections every minute # to a file set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--status openvpn-status.log" # The verbosity of this connection logging (displayed in the Viscosity 'Details' # window) can range from 0 (silent) to 9 extremely verbose. We will use the # default of 3 set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--verb 3" # To prevent more than 10 duplicates of the same log message in a row from # flooding the Viscosity log set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--mute 10" # The credential files set interfaces openvpn vtun0 tls ca-cert-file '/config/auth/ca.crt' set interfaces openvpn vtun0 tls cert-file '/config/auth/server.crt' set interfaces openvpn vtun0 tls key-file '/config/auth/server.key' # The server will use the default OpenVPN port (1194) set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--port 1194" # We need the VPN to create a tun network interface through which we can # route all our traffic: set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--dev vtun0" # The VPN requires a private IP subnet. We will use the default OpenVPN IP # subnet set interfaces openvpn vtun0 server subnet '10.8.0.0/24' # We want VPN clients connected to this server to be able to access any hosts # accessible on your home network. We are assuming that your local network # subnet is 192.168.0.x/24. If it is something else, you will need to change the # IP address in the command below. set interfaces openvpn vtun0 server push-route 192.168.0.0/24 # Lastly, we want to allow hosts on the home network to be able to see VPN # clients connected to the OpenVPN server set interfaces openvpn vtun0 openvpn-option "--client-to-client"
Pay special attention to the IP address in the
set interfaces openvpn vtun0 server push-route 192.168.0.0/24. Ensure that this subnet matches your home/office LAN IP subnet. If you are not setting up this VPN server to access your home/office LAN, then you can skip this line altogether.
We will use the firewall installed by default on VyOS. If you are installing OpenVPN on a server that already has its own firewall setup, make sure to add the rules to allow our OpenVPN traffic. However, if this is just a simple standalone VyOS server, the firewall settings below should be enough to get your OpenVPN server up and running.
Still in configuration mode, paste the following into the terminal window:
# First we will set the rules for traffic passing through the server. We want # the firewall to allow traffic for existing connections to the server, and drop # any new ones: set firewall name OUTSIDE-IN default-action 'drop' set firewall name OUTSIDE-IN rule 10 action 'accept' set firewall name OUTSIDE-IN rule 10 state established 'enable' set firewall name OUTSIDE-IN rule 10 state related 'enable' # Next we will set the rules to allow the local network to talk to the outside world set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL default-action 'drop' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 10 action 'accept' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 10 state established 'enable' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 10 state related 'enable'</code> # If you would like the ability to ping your VyOS server externally, add the following set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 20 action 'accept' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 20 icmp type-name 'echo-request' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 20 protocol 'icmp' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 20 state new 'enable' # If you would like the ability to SSH into your server externally (without a VPN connected), add the following # NOTE - This can be a security risk and is not recommended set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 30 action 'drop' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 30 destination port '22' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 30 protocol 'tcp' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 30 recent count '4' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 30 recent time '60' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 30 state new 'enable' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 31 action 'accept' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 31 destination port '22' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 31 protocol 'tcp' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 31 state new 'enable' # Allow external connections to the OpenVPN port. This will allow you to VPN to your server # from somewhere outside your local network (like a coffee shop) set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 40 action 'accept' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 40 destination port '1194' set firewall name OUTSIDE-LOCAL rule 40 protocol 'udp' # Apply these firewall policies: set interfaces ethernet eth0 firewall in name 'OUTSIDE-IN' set interfaces ethernet eth0 firewall local name 'OUTSIDE-LOCAL' # Lastly, we need to enable NAT masquerade: set nat source rule 100 outbound-interface 'eth0' set nat source rule 100 source address '10.8.0.0/24' set nat source rule 100 translation address 'masquerade' set nat source rule 200 outbound-interface 'eth1' set nat source rule 200 source address '10.8.0.0/24' set nat source rule 200 translation address 'masquerade'
If you are planning on encrypting all network traffic through your VPN server then it is recommended to enable your own DNS server. VyOS has a DNS forwarder installed by default which we can use to provide our own DNS server for the VPN connection, to prevent DNS related attacks.
Still in configuration mode, paste the following into the terminal window:
# We will set the DNS forwarder to store 100 lookups locally, to speed up # repeated DNS requests: set service dns forwarding cache-size '100' # DNS queries will be resolved coming from the local network: set service dns forwarding listen-on 'eth1' # DNS queries will be resolved coming from our VPN connection: set service dns forwarding listen-on 'vtun0' # We will use the Google DNS servers (you are free to use your DNS resolution # service of choice): set service dns forwarding name-server '188.8.131.52' set service dns forwarding name-server '184.108.40.206'
Now that we're done setting up the configuration, save the changes by entering the following into the terminal:
and exit configuration mode:
If your VyOS server is directly accessible, then you can skip this section. There is no router to configure.
However if your VyOS server is behind a router (such as on your home WiFi), then you will need to configure your router to permit VPN traffic. Due to the many different models of router and network configurations, we cannot provide a step by step guide on how to set up your router to allow VPN traffic. However there are a few settings you are likely to need to change, so we will outline them here.
As the the router will be directing all traffic to and from your OpenVPN server, you will need to set up port forwarding so that the OpenVPN server is externally accessible. Port forwarding may be under the section in your router management interface named 'Virtual Servers'. In general, you will want to forward any traffic incoming to the router on the OpenVPN port (1194). You will need to setup a rule to send any UDP traffic on these ports to the local IP address of your OpenVPN server (which is probably something in the range 192.168.0.x).
If you have set up port forwarding please also make a note of your external WAN IP address. This is the IP address assigned to your router by your Internet Service Provider (ISP). This address will be needed when configuring your connection in Viscosity below.
The other main router setting you will need to consider is static routing. Because you will have a VPN set up, there will be traffic sent to your router with a source or destination IP in the range 10.8.0.x. This traffic will need to have static routing in place to ensure that when a host recieves a request from the VPN client (on the 10.8.0.x subnet) and sends a response to that address, the router knows how to convert the 10.8.0.x IP address into an address it understands (i.e. 192.168.0.x). Thus you will need to setup a static routing rule that has the following properties:
Destination: 10.8.0.0 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default gateway: your-server-IP
where your-server-IP is the IP address of your OpenVPN server on the local network (something in the range 192.168.0.x).
Setting Up Viscosity
The interface provided by the Mac and Windows versions of Viscosity are intentionally very similar. As such, we will focus our guide on the Mac version, pointing out any differences with the Windows version as they arise.
If you do not have Viscosity already running, start Viscosity now. In the Mac version you will see the Viscosity icon appear in the menu bar. In the Windows version you will see the Viscosity icon appear in the system tray.
Click the Viscosity icon in the menu bar (Windows: system tray) and select 'Preferences...':
This shows you the list of available VPN connections. We assume you recently installed Viscosity, so this list is empty. Click on the '+' button and select 'New Connection':
Configuring the Connection
You will now need to set the connection parameters as outlined below:
- In the General tab, replace the connection name with your desired name for the connection, for example "DemoConnection".
- Replace the "Address" field with the IP address needed to connect to the server. If your VyOS server is directly reachable from the internet this will be its IP address. If the server is behind a router and port-forwarding has been set up this should be the external IP address of your router (please see the section above).
- Click the Authentication tab.
- Click the
Select ...button next to the CA option. Select the ca.crt file you created earlier (Mac:
- Click the
Select ...button next to the Cert option. Select the client1.crt file you created earlier
- Click the
Select ...button next to the Key option. Select the client1.key file you created earlier
- Click on the Options tab and set the Compression drop down to
- Click on the Networking tab and enter "10.8.0.1" into the "Servers" field in the DNS Settings section.
- Click the
Savebutton to save your changes.
(Optional) Allowing Access to the Internet
By default the VPN connection will allow access to the file server and other computers on the home/office (LAN) network. However if you also wish to have all internet traffic sent through the VPN connection it's necessary to make a final edit to the connection:
- Double-click on your connection in the Viscosity Preferences window to open the connection editor
- Click on the Networking tab.
- Click the "All Traffic" drop down and select the "Send all traffic over VPN connection" option. It is not necessary to enter a Default Gateway.
- Click the
Connecting and Using Your VPN Connection
You are now ready to connect. Click on the Viscosity icon in the menu bar (Windows: system tray) and select 'Connect DemoConnection'. That's it, you should see a notification that you're now connected!
To check that the VPN is up and running, you can use the Viscosity details window. Click the Viscosity menu bar (Windows: system tray) icon and select 'Details...'. This will bring up the details window.
This window will show you the traffic passing through the VPN connection.
Accessing Network Resources
Once connected to your VPN, you can access your files or other services by using the LAN IP address you would use if you were connected to them via your home/office local network.
Connect via Mac
To connect to a shared network directory from your Mac connected to the VPN:
- Open a Finder window
- Click Go on the menu bar and select "Connect to Server..."
- In the Server Address, type the LAN IP address of your network resource (something like 192.168.0.x) and click
- Enter the username and password for the network resource
- Select the shared volume you want to access and click
Network resources you would normally find appearing in the Finder sidebar will not appear when connected to via the VPN. You can find connected network resources in the Computer directory. In a Finder window, press
c to jump to the Computer directory.
Connect via Windows
To connect to a shared network directory from your PC connected to the VPN:
- Type the
\\lan-ip-addressinto the Search the web and Windows box in the taskbar and press
Enter(something like \\192.168.0.x)
- Enter the username and password for the network resource
- You will then see the folders shared by this host
That's it, you've set up your very own OpenVPN server. Congratulations, you are now free to enjoy the benefits of operating your own OpenVPN server!